Connexor Machinese Syntax
Language Model Tag Descriptions

Syntactic relations | Functional tags | Surface syntactic tags | Morphological tags |

English syntactic relations

Tag Explanation Example
main main element:
main nucleus of the sentence; usu. main verb of the main clause
The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
Sockets form the interface between UNIX standard I/O and network communication facilities.
qtag tag question It is cold, isn't it?
v-ch verb chain:
auxiliaries + main verb
If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
pm preposed marker:
grammatical marker of a subordinated clause. The marker (subordinating conjunction) itself doesn't have a syntactic function in the subordinated clause.
Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
pcomp prepositional complement:
the head of a nominal construction (NP or non-finite clause or nominal clause) that, together with a preposition, forms a prepositional phrase. Usually a preposition precedes its complement, but also topicalised complements occur.
They are in that red car.
She is fond of walking long distances.
What are you afraid of?
phr verb particle:
certain preposition-adverb homographs that form a phrasal verb with a verb
She looked up the word in the dictionary.
subj subject:
the head of an NP that agrees in number with the verb in the clause. Often signals the semantic category called agent.
John is in the kitchen.
agt agent:
The agent by-phrase in passive sentences.
The dog was chased by the boys.
obj object:
the head of the other main nominal dependent of transitive verbs (and ditransitive verbs, together with indirect objects)
John saw an apple. John gave him an apple.
comp subject complement:
the head of the other main nominal dependent of copular verbs.
John remains a boy. What you see is what you get. John is foolish.
dat indirect object:
Ditransitive verbs can take three nominal dependents: subject, indirect object, object.
John gave him an apple.
oc object complement:
a nominal category that occurs along with an object for object complementiser verbs.
John called him a fool. John considers him foolish.
copred copredicative John regards him as foolish.
com comitative Drinking with you is nice.
voc vocative John, come here!
ins instrument He sliced the salami with the knife.
tmp time If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
dur duration The OECD praises the relative stability of US unemployment as "remarkable", given the 50 per cent increase in the American US labour force in the past 25 years.
frq frequency It often involves the use of CASE tools.
qua quantity Singapore says more about this than Hong Kong.
man manner If Europe is so wonderful, they argue, why does its job creation record compare so poorly with that of the United States?
loc location That exacerbates a key problem in America, the skills gap.
sou source Policymakers in both seem to be moving away from the characteristics that defined them.
goa goal Virgin is expected to try to move to a full anti-trust trial.
pth path He travelled from Tokyo to Beijing.
cnt contingency (purpose or reason) The DTI was unable to say last night why the approach for Frances Colliery had been rejected.
cnd condition If Europe is so wonderful, they argue, why does its job creation record compare so poorly with that of the United States?
meta clause adverbial So far, the OECD has refused to disclose its country-by-country studies.
cla clause initial adverbial Under President Clinton, the highly flexible US labour market is becoming more regulated.
ha heuristic prepositional phrase attachment Eventually the beam will escape through the partially reflective mirror.
qn quantifier IFA Promotion, which represents more than 15,000 independent financial advisers, commissioned a random poll of new year resolutions.
det determiner Nearly a third of East Anglians resolved to stay healthy in 1995.
neg negator What a blessing the releases were not in Finnish!
attr attributive nominal By Philip Bassett, Industrial Editor.
mod other postmodifier Ministers will see the OECD report on the UK labour market as international recognition of their reform of one of the economy's most difficult areas.
ad attributive adverbial So much for modern technology.
cc Coordination: The coordinating conjunction and one coordinated element are linked to the other coordinated element. Multiple coordinated elements are chained together. The upmost element in a chain shows the functional role of the coordinated units. Jack and Jill bought some pins, nails and needles.

English functional tags

Tag Explanation Example
@+FAUXV Finite auxiliary predicator If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@-FAUXV Nonfinite auxiliary predicator Software can be split roughly into two main types - system software and application software or programs.
@+FMAINV Finite main predicator Sockets form the interface between UNIX standard I/O and network communication facilities.
@-FMAINV Nonfinite main predicator If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@SUBJ Subject Sockets form the interface between UNIX standard I/O and network communication facilities.
@F-SUBJ Formal subject There are various models of the software life-cycle, and many methodologies for the different phases.
@OBJ Object If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@I-OBJ  Indirect object  John gave him an apple.
@PCOMPL-S Subject complement A statistic that is content-free, or nearly so.
@PCOMPL-O Object complement This downloading, or "booting" process of the PC-installed software algorithms occurs as part of the computer's power-up initialisation process in less than 100 milliseconds, making it transparent to the user.
@ADVL Adverbial Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
@O-ADVL Object adverbial She let him walk the streets in the cold and in the rain.
@APP Apposition Software can be split roughly into two main types - system software and application software or programs.
@NH Stray noun phrase The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
@VOC Vocative John, come here!
@A> Premodifier of a nominal These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk, from which they are downloaded into the DSP board's random access memory (RAM).
@DN> Determiner If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@QN> Premodifying quantifier This downloading, or "booting" process of the PC-installed software algorithms occurs as part of the computer's power-up initialisation process in less than 100 milliseconds, making it transparent to the user.
@AD-A> Intensifier An optical laser works by bouncing photons back and forth between two mirrors, one totally reflective and one partially reflective.
@<NOM-OF Postmodifying prepositional phrase beginning with of If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@<AD-A Postmodifying intensifier Compuserve developed the GIF format for graphical images many years ago.
@<NOM  Postmodifier of a nominal The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
@INFMARK>  Infinitive marker to Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
@<P-FMAINV Nonfinite clause as preposition complement The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
@<P Other preposition complement If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
@CC Coordinating conjunction Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
@CS Subordinating conjunction Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
@DUMMY Unspecified Hey, so-and-so needs an instruction to do such-and-such.

English surface syntactic tags

Tags in FDG Explanation Example
%>N determiner or premodifier of a nominal These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk, from which they are downloaded into the DSP board's random access memory (RAM).
%NH nominal head Sockets form the interface between UNIX standard I/O and network communication facilities.
%N< postmodifier of a nominal The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
%>A premodifying adverb An optical laser works by bouncing photons back and forth between two mirrors, one totally reflective and one partially reflective.
%AH adverbial head (besides adverbs, applies to interjections, prepositions, and the negative particle) Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
%A< postmodifying adverb He knew it well enough.
%AUX auxiliary verb or particle Software can be split roughly into two main types - system software and application software or programs.
%VP main verb in a passive verb chain These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk, from which they are downloaded into the DSP board's random access memory (RAM).
%VA main verb in an active verb chain If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
%>CC Introducer of coordination both Harry and Bill came
%CC coordinating conjunction Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
%CS subordinating conjunction Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.

English morphological tags

Part of speech Subfeature Explanation Example
N noun These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk.
-- case NOM nominative These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk.
GEN genitive These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk.
-- number SG singular These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk.
PL plural These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk.

With nouns, the obligatory tags include 'N' and case. In Conexor FDG, the obligatory tags for nouns include 'N', case, and number.

ABBR abbreviation "SODA Manual of Operation", R. C. Brigham and C. G. Bell, School of Elec Eng, U New S Wales, Sydney, NSW (1958)
-- case and number like in nouns

With abbreviations, the obligatory tags include 'ABBR' and case. In Conexor FDG, the obligatory tags for abbreviations include 'ABBR', case and number.

A adjective These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk, from which they are downloaded into the DSP board's random access memory (RAM).
-- comparison ABS absolutive big
CMP comparative bigger
SUP superlative biggest

With adjectives, the obligatory tags include 'A' and degree of comparison.

NUM numeral Software can be split roughly into two main types - system software and application software or programs.
CARD cardinal 2010
ORD ordinal first
-- number SG fraction, singular one-third
PL fraction, plural two-thirds

With numerals, the obligatory tags include 'NUM' and either 'CARD' or 'ORD'.

PRON pronoun Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
-- case and related features NOM nominative others
GEN genitive other's
ACC accusative him
INDEP the independent genitive form functioning always as head of a noun phrase theirs
-- number SG singular other
SG1 singular, first person me
SG3 singular, third person him
PL plural others
PL1 plural, first person us
PL3 plural, third person them
-- comparison ABS absolutive much
CMP comparative more
SUP superlative most
-- other pronoun subfeatures PERS personal us
DEM demonstrative these
RECIPR reciprocal each other
WH relative or interrogative pronoun beginning with the letters 'wh' or 'how' which
<Interr> interrogative why
<Refl> reflexive herself
<Rel> relative which

With pronouns, the only obligatory tag is 'PRON'. The anglebracket tags occur in front of the 'PRON' tag, when relevant. After the 'PRON' tag come the tags 'PERS', 'RECIPR', 'WH', 'DEM', or degree of comparison, when relevant. Next is the place for case, then number, and last, 'INDEP', when relevant.

DET determiner If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running.
-- case GEN genitive whose
-- number SG singular an option
PL plural these options
-- comparison ABS absolutive many options
CMP comparative more options
SUP superlative most options
-- other subfeatures of determiners DEM demonstrative this option
WH determiner beginning with the letters 'wh' or 'how' which option

With determiners, the only obligatory tag is 'DET'. In Conexor FDG, the obligatory tags for determiners include 'DET' and number. In the ordering of the morphological tags, the number tag is the last one and the case tag second to last, when relevant.

ADV adverb Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
-- comparison ABS absolutive far
CMP comparative further
SUP superlative furthest
-- other subfeatures for adverbs <Ex> existential there There are various models of the software life-cycle, and many methodologies for the different phases.
WH adverb beginning with the letters 'wh' or 'how' why

With adverbs, the obligatory tags include 'ADV'. The anglebracket tag again occurs in front of the 'ADV' tag, when relevant.

ING present participle The Berkeley UNIX mechanism for creating a virtual connection between processes.
EN past participle These integrated algorithms are stored on the computer's hard disk, from which they are downloaded into the DSP board's random access memory (RAM).

V verb; used only for finite verbs and infinitives Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage.
AUXMOD modal auxiliary would
INF infinitive would be
IMP imperative John, come here!
SUBJUNCTIVE subjunctive The casket be brought in.
-- tense PRES present tense are
PAST past tense were
-- person SG1 singular, first person am
SG3 singular, third person is
-- other subfeatures for verbs <N+> noun-verb combination India's got..

With verbs, the obligatory tags include 'V' and one of the following: 'AUXMOD', 'INF', 'IMP', or tense. With tense, person is possible. The subfeature <N+> is placed before the 'V' tag when relevant.

INTERJ interjection Hey, so-and-so needs an instruction to do such-and-such.
CC coordinating conjunction and
CS subordinating conjunction if
PREP preposition of
NEG-PART the negative particle are not, aren't
INFMARK> infinitive marker to do this in order to do that
Heur mark for unknown word; occurs in front of a part-of-speech tag mechansim


Connexor Oy 1997-2009