|Title||Knowledge Acquisition from User Reviews for Interactive Question Answering|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Degree||Doctor of Philosophy|
|University||University of Wolverhampton|
Nowadays, the effective management of information is extremely important for all spheres of our lives and applications such as search engines and question answering systems help users to find the information that they need. However, even when assisted by these various applications, people sometimes struggle to find what they want. For example, when choosing a product customers can be confused by the need to consider many features before they can reach a decision. Interactive question answering (IQA) systems can help customers in this process, by answering questions about products and initiating a dialogue with the customers when their needs are not clearly defined. The focus of this thesis is how to design an interactive question answering system that will assist users in choosing a product they are looking for, in an optimal way, when a large number of similar products are available. Such an IQA system will be based on selecting a set of characteristics (also referred to as product features in this thesis), that describe the relevant product, and narrowing the search space. We believe that the order in which these characteristics are presented in terms of these IQA sessions is of high importance. Therefore, they need to be ranked in order to have a dialogue which selects the product in an efficient manner. The research question investigated in this thesis is whether product characteristics mentioned in user reviews are important for a person who is likely to purchase a product and can therefore be used when designing an IQA system. We focus our attention on products such as mobile phones; however, the proposed techniques can be adapted for other types of products if the data is available. Methods from natural language processing (NLP) fields such as coreference resolution, relation extraction and opinion mining are combined to produce various rankings of phone features. The research presented in this thesis employs two corpora which contain texts related to mobile phones specifically collected for this thesis: a corpus of Wikipedia articles about mobile phones and a corpus of mobile phone reviews published on the Epinions.com website. Parts of these corpora were manually annotated with coreference relations, mobile phone features and relations between mentions of the phone and its features. The annotation is used to develop a coreference resolution module as well as a machine learning-based relation extractor. Rule-based methods for identification of coreference chains describing the phone are designed and thoroughly evaluated against the annotated gold standard. Machine learning is used to find links between mentions of the phone (identified by coreference resolution) and phone features. It determines whether some phone feature belong to the phone mentioned in the same sentence or not. In order to find the best rankings, this thesis investigates several settings. One of the hypotheses tested here is that the relatively low results of the proposed baseline are caused by noise introduced by sentences which are not directly related to the phone and phone feature. To test this hypothesis, only sentences which contained mentions of the mobile phone and a phone feature linked to it were processed to produce rankings of the phones features. Selection of the relevant sentences is based on the results of coreference resolution and relation extraction. Another hypothesis is that opinionated sentences are a good source for ranking the phone features. In order to investigate this, a sentiment classification system is also employed to distinguish between features mentioned in positive and negative contexts. The detailed evaluation and error analysis of the methods proposed form an important part of this research and ensure that the results provided in this thesis are reliable.